Buryatia as one of the beautiful regions of the East Siberia strikes everyone with amazing diversity of nature organically combining grandeur and might of Baikal, boundless taiga space, deep rivers and snow-covered tops of the Sayan mountain ridges. From the ancient times different ethnic groups and Peoples inhabited the territory of the present-day Buryatia.
During the Stone Age they were occupied with hunting and fishing. The Bronze Age saw the appearance of the “slab grave” culture with ancient tombstones, the so-called “reindeer stones” in steppes and many rock and cave paintings. People living in the distant past could process copper and bronze, manufacture beautiful decorations and household articles made of gold and bronze showing a high level of workmanship.
One of the most interesting pages in the history of Buryatia is related to the Hunnish people, after having replaced the “slab grave” bearers during the last centuries B.C. Only a few settlements and some gigantic burial-vaults were left after the centuries-long supremacy of the conglomerate of these ethnic groups who had created the first state to appear in Central Asia. At the northern boundaries of their estate the Hunnish tribes built fortification outpost, that is now called as Nizhniy-Ivolginsk Gorodische. A large number of burials are known to be discovered in the south of Buryatia. One of them was found within the region of Ust-Kyakhta, in Ilmovaya Pad.
In 1990 the Buryat Soviet Socialist Republic declared its state sovereignty and gave up the status of autonomous republic. Nowadays it is called the Republic of Buryatia and is the subject of the Russian Federation.
Those events that happened in the history of Buryatia influenced the life its inhabitants greatly. Specific public relations have been formed they include patience and respect national dignity, history, religion and culture of other neighboring people.
It was reflected in religious and cultural merging, mixed marriages, joint Labor and protection of State frontier, mutual penetration of cultures, local customs and so on. Buryatia is a multinational republic, different religions and confessions exist here peacefully. The most widely-spread and traditional are Buddhism and Orthodoxy including one of its branched-ancient Orthodoxy. There is traditional Buddhist Sangkha of Russia and the Buddhist institute of Dashi Choynkhorlyn. Ancient system of religions and philosophic ideas-shamanism, the main confession of aborigines before coming of Buddhism and Orthodoxy to Buryatia, is being revived.
Some brief information of the Republic of Buryatia:
- The Republic occupies 351,3 thousand sq.km
- there are 23 municipal formations: 6 towns 29 urban settlements, 615 villages
- According to the preliminary results of the All-Russian Census in 2002 the number of population in the Republic of Buryatia is 979,4 thousand people. Urban population is about 60% and rural population is about 40%, about 1/3 of its number live in the capital of the republic The native people are Buryats, Evenks and Soyots
- The capital of the Republic is the city of Ulan-Ude
- State languages are Russian and Buryat
- The Republic has its own Constitution, State symbols: Coat-of-arms, flag and Anthem
- The Supreme Legislative organ is People’s Khural, the highest organ of executive power is the Government
- The head of the executive power is the President, the first one was elected in 1994
- Present Buryatia is located in the central part of the Asian continent in the South of Siberia. It borders on the Irkutsk region(oblast) in the North-west, on the Chita region in the East, on the Republic of Tyva in the North and on Mongolia in the South. Buryatia is situated in the cross-roads. Which connect European and Eastern region of Russia and countries of Asian Pacific region as Mongolia and China first of all with our country.