Khan’s Mosque in Kasimov is the oldest mosque in Central Russia. It dates from the Qasim Khanate of the 15th and 16th centuries. According to Kadir Ali, the brick mosque was built by Shahghali at some point in the mid-16th century. Others believe that the mosque goes back to the reign of Qasim Khan. The original building was torn down at the behest of Peter the Great in 1702, but its wide stone minaret survives.
The existing mosque was erected next to the old minaret in 1768. The local Tatar nobles had a second storey added in 1835. A little closer to the Oka River is another local landmark, Shahghali’s Mausoleum from the mid-16th century. The Khan’s Mosque has been designated a public museum since the 1930s.
Lala Tulpan (“Tulip in Bloom”) in Ufa is one of Russia‘s largest mosques. Its 53-metre-tall twin minarets are the third tallest in the country after the Akhmad Kadyrov Mosque in Grozny and the Qolsharif Mosque in Kazan. The building can hold up to 1000 worshippers. It was built between 1990 and 1998 to a modernist design by Wakil Davlyatshin. In 2001 Vladimir Putin held a meeting with Talgat Tadzhuddin and other Muslim clerics at the mosque.
Makhachkala Grand Mosque
The Grand Mosque in Makhachkala (Yusuf Bei Cami) is the main mosque of the Republic of Dagestan. It is supposed to have been patterned after the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul. The building can accommodate up to 17,000 worshipers. Its construction was financed by Turkey. The mosque was completed and consecrated in 1998. It is the focal point of the city’s main thoroughfare, Imam Shamil Avenue.
The Sunni Mosque or the Mukhtarov Mosque is a historic mosque on the left bank of the Terek River in Vladikavkaz. The mosque owes its name to the Azerbaijani millionaire Murtuza Mukhtarov who financed its construction in 1900-1908. The architect Józef Plośko was inspired by Al-Azhar and other mosques of Cairo. Plośko was also the architect of Mukhtarov Palace in Baku. The mosque serves the Ossetian Muslim minority.
The Sunni Mosque is known for its picturesque setting against the dramatic backdrop of the Caucasus Mountains. It also used to serve the Ingush residents of Vladikavkaz before they were expelled from North Ossetia in the 1990s. The mosque has been protected as a historic landmark since 1934. In 1996, it was badly damaged by an explosion and later restored.
The first permanent mosque in the city of Ufa was erected in 1830 on Frolovskaya Street (later renamed Tukayev Street). Its construction was initiated by Gabdesallam Gabdrakhimov (1765-1840), the second mufti of the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly. A madrasah was opened in 1887. It was the only active mosque in the city between 1960 and 1994. The local imam Cihangir Abızgildin was arrested and executed by the NKVD in 1937.
The Perm Central Mosque (Пермская соборная мечеть) was built in 1902 and 1903 in the Tatar district of Perm, Russia. Its construction was financed by the local Tatar merchant families. The striped green-and-white building with a tapering minaret was designed by Alexander Ozhegov. For some years it was the northernmost mosque in the world.
After the Russian Revolution the mosque was shut down. The building was used for storing the Communist Party archives between 1940 and 1986. Religious activities in the mosque were resumed in 1990.
Saint Petersburg Mosque
The Saint Petersburg Mosque (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргская мече́ть), when opened in 1913, was the largest mosque in Russia, its minarets 49 meters in height and the dome is 39 meters high. The mosque is situated in downtown St Petersburg. It can accommodate up to five thousand worshippers.
The founding stone was laid in 1910 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the reign of Abdul Ahat Khan in Bukhara. By that time, the Muslim community of the Russian then-capital exceeded 8,000 people. The projected structure was capable of accommodating most of them. The architect Nikolai Vasilyev patterned the mosque after Gur-e Amir, the tomb of Tamerlane in Samarkand. Its construction was completed by 1921.
Worshippers are separated by gender during a worship service; women worship on the first floor, while the men worship on the ground floor. The Mosque was closed to worshippers from 1940 to 1956.
The Qolşärif Mosque (pronounced [kɔlʃæˈriːf], also spelled Qol Sharif, Qol Sherif and Kol Sharif via the Tatar Колшәриф мәчете, Qolşärif mäçete, and Kul Sharif via the Russian мечеть Кул-Шариф, mechet Kul-Sharif) in Kazan Kremlin, was reputed to be – at the time of its construction — the largest mosque in Russia, and in Europe outside of Istanbul.
Historic Mosque in Moscow
In memory of the valiant participation Tatar-Bashkir regiments in the war of 1812 Muslims in Moscow in 1813, received permission to open a house of worship in the Tatar settlement. In 1823, it was allowed to build a stone building on the site of the merchant Nazarbaev Hamalova. In 1881, the house of worship was rebuilt: built minaret and dome, after the reconstruction of the building of the first mosque, Moscow has acquired a complete form of the Muslim place of worship
The complex of White Mosque is located not far from the entrance to Bolgar near the southern gates of the museum-reserve. The complex comprises the mosque, residence of mufti, medrese, and prayer zone. The height of two minarets is 46,5 meters, diameter of the main dome is 17 meters. Walls are decorated with traditional picturesque elements.