Mysterious Caucasus Dolmens


      Caucasus Dolmens: 

1093967_600The Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehistoric architecture, built with precisely dressed large stone blocks. The stones were, shaped into 90-degree angles, to be used as corners or were curved to make a circle. The monuments date between the end of the 4th millennium and the beginning of the 2nd millennium B.C. They are situated in the foothills (about 250-400 meters above the sea level) along the coast of the Black Sea. This chain is the biggest conglomeration of dolmens in Europe.

Approximately 3,000 of these megalithic monuments are known in the North-Western Caucasus, but more are constantly being found, while more and more are also being destroyed. Today, many are in great disrepair and will be lost if they are not protected from vandals and general neglect. 

Locations of know Caucasus Dolmens.

map

 Caucasus Dolmens Architecture.

In the opinion of Vladimir Markovin , all forms of the Caucasus dolmens can be categorised into four main types:

Plate Dolmens: These dolmens are essentially stone boxes, formed with 5 complete plates of stone. It has been established that 92% of the Caucasus dolmens were built in this fashion. They are also considered to be some of the oldest, being dated at c. 2,700 BC.

At the heart of the development of West Caucasian monuments is a plate dolmen built in the form of a simple ‘house of cards’. In all variants of dolmen construction (compound, trough-shaped, monolith) with their complicated forms and constructions one can see their relation with plate monuments”. “The period of flourishing of dolmen culture fall on the 3rd and second half of the 2nd [millennium] B.C. At that time there is a wide spread of plate constructions”. The late period of dolmen culture falls on the middle of the 2nd [millennium] B.C. Plate dolmens lose clearness of their proportions, trough-shaped dolmens appear. By the end of the period, dolmen-monoliths appear. Approximately by 1,400 BC, many of the dolmens begin to be used as burials or as bone depository. By that time they stopped building them.”  

The Yara Dolmen with facade similar in style to the Irish Court-Tombs and the Sardinian ‘Tomba di Giganti’.

A Close up of the entrance shows the zigzag motif, common in the area and in several Irish Passage mounds. A single zigzag line around the top of the walls on the inside of the dolmen. 

Compound Dolmens: These dolmens were built partially into rock, but also have walls built of smaller plates or stone blocks.

trough shaped domen

A Compound dolmen, Caucasus, Russia.

Trough-shaped Dolmens: These structures were hollowed out from the living rock, then covered with removable plates.

hollowed out of rock dolmen

Hollowed out rock with removable stone slab roof.

Monolithic Dolmens: These structures were carved to simulate the appearance of dolmens, they were entirely hollowed out in large stones or rocks.

The Tuapse Dolmen with fake portal on the rear.

The variety of decoration for these tombs is not great. Vertical and horizontal zigzags, hanging triangles and concentric circles are the most common motifs. One decorative motif that is quite common is found across the top of the porthole slab. It can best be described as a lintel held up by two columns. Pairs of breasts, done in relief, have also been found on a few tombs. These breasts usually appear above the two columns of the porthole decoration. Members of Sochi geographical Society claimed  discovery of ancient writings on Dolmens located in Sochi area. During their expedition scientists saw images on some of the stones and noticed that they closely resemble Asian petroglyphs. They also believe that these petroglyphs are not just pictures, but have a meaning. 

The Portal Holes:

All of the dolmens are punctuated with a portal in the centre of the facade. Some are made of more than one stone, and others carved through a single stone. While round portholes are the most common, square ones are also found. Related to these are the stone plugs, which were used to block the porthole, and are found with almost every tomb. They are sometimes phallic-shaped. Typically, the entrance of a Caucasian dolmen is always at the south-side (as with the Dutch Hunebeds).

solnechnyy-dolmen.

Gelendjik dolmen: Note the carved Trilithon entrance:

(More about Holed Stones)

Myth and Fable:

‘Adygei legend says that once upon a time there were giants in the Caucasus. they were kind and strong creatures, and as it often happens, there were small and spiteful people near them. they were sharp, cunning, whining and artful people who were driven away by their former neighbours for their meanness and treachery. the giants gave refuge and a part of their lands to them. They were so kind that they made stone houses for their guests and they carried them on their shoulders to the most beautiful and dry places, to the banks of rivers and lakes. Instead of doors they breached round holes through which little people went hunting on lop-eared hares. However the giants were repaid for their kindness. In order to tame the giants the little people blinded them and began to give them different herbs and because of it, the giants began to lose their minds and conflict with each other. Once the giants freed themselves from charms a war began, resulting in everyone’s death with just the stone houses remaining’.

 

The Kolikho Disc:

The restoration of the “Kolikho” Dolmen from the Tuapse region, on the Black sea coast, Russia), was successfully completed in 2009. The dolmen was found by accident after the seasonal flood in 2008. It was buried beneath 3 m-thick river deposits and left untouched since the Bronze Age.

“It’s not the largest dolmen, or the best-preserved, and certainly not the most beautiful,” said Dr. Viktor Trifonov, a Bronze Age expert and the head of the restoration project. What makes this object unique, he said, is its status as “the first honestly acquired museum dolmen.”…”These [monuments] were built to be part of the landscape,” Trifonov said, “Ancient people would see them and understand — this is a tomb holding someone’s remains, this is someone’s territory. It’s an entire language.” (4)

Kolikho Plate Dolmen

The Kolikho Plate Dolmen and goods on display in the Moscow State Museum.

The burial chamber was full of partly disarticulated human remains. All of them were put in the chamber through the hole in the façade slab. Radiocarbon dates of human remains (72 people) covers the period (approx.) between 1800 and 1300 B.C. with no signs of chronological gaps. In other word, the dolmen was in use for about 500 years. The grave goods were small and consist of pottery, a bronze javelin head, bronze spiral earrings, a bone belt buckle, a few stone flakes and a sandstone disk about the size of a dinner plate with signs on both sides.

On one side of the disk are “astral” symbols (an eight pointed star), on other side – marks along the rim of the disk. The last thing is absolutely unexpected find! It looks like sort of device, perhaps the Caucasan version of the Nebra disk. At present nothing more is known.

(More about Archaeoastronomy)

Gallery of Images: The Caucasan Dolmens:

jane valley dolmen

The Jane Valley Dolmen, Russia with stone pavement.

Mamed canyon dolmen

The Mamed Canyon Dolmen, with its appearance of a pyramid from the side.

Related articles:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmens_of_North_Caucasus

http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancients/02files/The_Case_for_Hobbits_Caucasian_Dolmens.html

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5 thoughts on “Mysterious Caucasus Dolmens

  1. Dear All
    These Dolmens are not hiding places, nor were there no Giants involved. This was human beings, our ancestors building these. If you look at size of these dolmens they are made for ONE person ONLY. Our ancestors foretold, could ‘see’, and knew the ‘madness’ falling over us where our minds where turned by the incoming flux of those proclaiming they were the only ones to ‘speak’ to ‘all that is’. Man’s mind was turned against his beloved and his own family, love got lost, families dispersed and now we all live in little boxes, trailing backwards and forwards to a place we call ‘work’ and pay off our ‘sins’ to someone else who still proclaim to be the only ones able to talk to ‘all that is’, our mother father God.

    The elders knew, therefore those with their abilities still intact chose to not reincarnate again, they chose to go into these dolmens, to stay there for eternity, to help those that would come after. They were entombed, alive, and left their body to stay in that space, for us, their children, their relations, as we are all one. They are still there, waiting, for those willing and able to come and ask for that information to be passed onto them. Humanity is at its next apex of change. If we cannot make this transition there is no return, it will all end as ‘the source’, call it what you like, has drawn a line, no more abuse of my children. He/she made us in his IMAGE so we need not anyone else to speak for us, we speak direct to source ‘all that is’, and that is our birth right as human beings. However, these ancestors of us who were very wise and had skills we can only dream of right now, gave their lives for us, so we could find our way back ‘home’, to source, the direct communication.

    Go there, meditate, ask our ancestors to speak to you, make sure you are really ‘open’ to receive, and you will see your life change in ways you never thought possible. These are very sacred sites and should not be moved or dismantled from the place where they were found as then you remove the meaning, and the spirit attached to this dolmen will not be reached in the correct setting. Much of our sacred sites are destroyed in similar fashion, over the thousands of years since, and purposefully so. As if you humans reconnect with a direct connection to source, those in power today, will lose that power over today’s humans. They will not like that and therefore all sacred sites have systematically been destroyed for a long time. If you like just one example, look at Avebury in England, stones where burnt and crushed to stop humans from remembering. It is time now to awaken from that slumber of enforced slavery to a system proclaiming to want your best, turning you away from the one and only TRUE source, ‘all that is’.

    “Go where many fear to tread, with an open heart, courage, and faith, our ancestors await us at the end of that road”. The road will be manifold and abundant, and we will give birth to children that are truly free, not those now handed over to the ‘system’ for the ‘system’ to raise. This very ‘system’ is the system we believe to be free but it is nothing but that. We are slaves to this system and this system is holding our children hostage and or brainwash them for its own purpose. It has nothing to do with the source and LOVE, it is only in self-serving purpose by a few, one could call ‘priests’. They sell you a great image that you buy into to be truth.
    We all need to awaken and see the truth before it is too late, that TRUTH is we need no one else to speak for us, we are children of source, and we are divine.

    We were made in his/her IMAGE so therefore we are perfect and we speak with him/her direct. We need no intermediate. Listen to your heart and know I am telling the truth, I walk my talk, I FEEL, I am HUMAN, I am that I am, truly a woman a human being and I LOVE and appreciate the source and all that is given, FREELY, and in ABUNDANCE. We are blessed but we need to get our shit together and start now, not tomorrow, but right now. Live today and follow the truth, your heart will guide you if you have the correct intention.

    “May you live long and prosperous my fellow human beings, may you all awaken and follow the true path of humanity, the one serving the source and self, not as servants, but as free human beings. With love and respect, may it be so”.

    x Monica

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